Meaning and Definitions of Lesson Plan
Teaching is organized in three phases : pre-active, interactive and post active phase of teaching. Before entering into the classroom whatever activities a teacher plans may be put in a pre-active phases of teaching. The lesson-planning is virtually the preactive phases of teaching.
N.L. Bossing has given a comprehensive definition of lesson plan.
“Lesson plan is the title given to a statement of the achievement to be realized and have the specific meaning by which these are to be attained as a result of the activities engaged during the period of teaching.”
Need and Importance of Lesson Plan
The lesson plan has significant role in planning and organizing instructional procedure with the following reasons :
1. In teacher-education programme, the lesson planning provides the guideline to pupil-teachers during their teaching practices.
2. It provides awareness of teaching objectives and structure of content and teacher has to perform his activities in the direction to achieve the objectives.
3. The sequence of content is to be planned and finalized by content-analysis in lesson-planning.
4. The apperceptive mass of the learner is developed or encouraged by linking the new knowledge with the previous knowledge of the students.
5. The use of teaching aids, techniques, methods and maxims are predetermined for the presentation of the content.
6. The teaching activities are related to learning structures with the help of scientific lesson plan.
7. It maintains the sequence of content presentation and prevents the teacher to deviate from the topic.
8. It determines the suitable places of reinforcing and controlling the students behaviour during teaching.
9. The classroom teaching activities are organised by considering the students individual differences.
10. The effectiveness of a teacher depends on a good lesson plan. It develops the reasoning, decision making ability and imagination and pupil teachers.
11. The micro-lessons are helpful in developing specific teaching skills.
12. The pupil-teacher gains confidence in performing the classroom teaching activities for presentation and demonstration.
Principles of Lesson Plan
The lesson planning is an instructional procedure designed and prepared by pupil-teachers and inservice teachers before the classroom teaching. It is also known as pre-active stage of teaching or planning of teaching. The lesson planning involves several types principles, because teaching is an art as well as science. The principles of lesson planning can be broadly classified into the following categories.
(a) Philosophical principles or propositions.
(b) Psychological principles and concepts,
(c) Sociological principles or norms.
(d) Pedagogical principles and
(e) Principles of technology of teaching
Approaches of Lesson Planning
There are various approaches for designing the lesson planning. The important approaches have been discussed here.
The Herbert Approach : The Herbartian Approach is based on apperceptive mass theory of learning. The proposition of that theory is that the learner is like a clean state and all the knowledge is given from outside. If new knowledge is imparted by linking with old knowledge of the student, it may be acquired easily and retained for a longer period. The teaching content should be presented into units and these units should arranged in a logical sequence. Herbart has given five steps : Introduction, presentation, organization, comparison and evaluation. These steps have been discussed in detail in ‘Memory Level Teaching’. In our training colleges and teacher education programmes the lesson plans are prepared on the Herbartian Approach. The main emphasis is given on content presentation.
Evaluation Approach : B.S. Bloom has given a new dimension to education. He considers education as a tripolar process
(1) educational objectives,
(2) learning experiences and
(3) change of behaviours. He has made education as objectives-centred rather than content-centred.
Bloom’s Approach of lesson planning is termed as ‘Evaluation Approach’. The testing should be based on teaching. The evidences and data are collected for the change of behaviours of the students,. The decision can be taken about objectives of learning and these evidences may provide on the basis for revision and improving the learning experience. All the teaching activities must be objective-centred.
John Dewey and Kilpatrick Approach : John Dewy was an American pragmatic philosopher. He was a great philosopher as well as a great psychologist. He was a professor of education in Columbia University. He originated a pragmatic school of thought. He has given the valuable contributions in the field of education. He has shifted the focus of education to social efficiency. The knowledge of student should be related to their life situations. The learning experiences should be provided by solving the real problems.
Morrison’s Approach : Henry C. Morrison has developed this approach lesson planning. He has explained the ‘Unit Method’ in detail in his book ‘The Practice of Teaching in Secondary Schools’ published in 1926. This unit method is most popular and frequently used in U.S.A.
H.C. Morrison defines, ‘Unit is a comprehension and significant aspect of the environment of an organized science and art.’
Wisley has also defined the term unit in the following manner:
“The unit is an organized body of information and experience designed to effect significant outcomes for the learner.”
Morrison has formulated ‘Cycle Plan of Teaching’, and the unit method of Morrison is more psychological in nature. His major emphasis in teaching is that the teacher should be clear about the learning objectives. The Student’s needs are considered in planning the teaching tasks. Morrison has given five steps for employing his ‘cycle plan of teaching’ under the heading of ‘Understanding Level of Teaching.’
Morrison gives main emphasis on assimilation aspect of the learner where as Herbart stresses on the presentation aspect of the teacher. It is evident from the paradigm of teaching that it is a learner centred approach to lesson-planning. This approach is more useful in science and maths teaching rather than in social studies subjects.
The paradigm of lessons-plans differs from country to country : Therefore, another basis of lesson planning approaches may be denoted by the names countries :
1. American Approach : The specific features of American approach is that the priority is given to learning objectives in lesson-planning. The teacher and students activities are so organized that the optimum realization of objectives may be done. The teacher-activities should generate appropriate learning situations for bringing the desirable change in learner behaviours. The teaching and learning performances are evaluated on the basis of learning-objectives and a criterion test is developed for this purpose. The learner’s performance serve the purpose for providing feedback to planning and organizing aspect of lesson planning. The instructional procedure can be revised and improved on the basis of students performance.
2. British Approach : The main feature of British approach is that the emphasis is given to teacher and content presentation in lesson planning. The Britishers believe in slow change but from 1970, new innovations and new practices have been introduced in the field of education. The teacher has to play major role in teaching-learning process. He has to plan, organize and control the student-activities in the teaching process. On the other hand, the stress is given on student-testing. The achievement test has to content coverage or maintains the content validity. The oral, essay type and objective type test are used for measuring the students achievements.
3. Indian Approach : The Indian approach of lesson-planning has the major influence of both earlier approaches. The learning objective. Teacher-activities, student-activities and evaluation of student are crucial aspects of lesson-planning. The Regional Colleges of Education NCERT have made great efforts in this direction. The Regional College of Education Mysore has developed a paradigm of lesson plan. It consists of teaching objectives and learning experiences. The question answer strategy is followed in developing lesson plan, because teaching is considered as an interactive process. The classroom interaction among teacher and students can be encouraged by this strategy of teaching. In most of training colleges the lesson. Planning is based on Herbartian Approach.
The lesson-planning approaches may be classified into two categories on the basis of lesson-plan structures :
(a) Macro Approach : The focus of Macro-approach of lesson planning is the development of students and their modification of behaviours. The size of topic, size of class and size of period are usually large. More than one objectives are achieved with the help of Macrolesson-plan. The cognitive., conative and affective-learning-objectives can be achieved by one teaching- practices. This paradigm of lesson considers the general classroom teaching activities or teacher behaviours, the specific teaching, skills are not included in this approach.
(b) Micro-Approach : It is the recent innovation in the field of teacher-education. The micro approach is employed in lesson-planning micro-teaching for the modification of teacher behaviour. Its focus is to develop the specific teaching skills rather than to bring desirable change among students. It is a real classroom teaching. The micro-lesson means to reduce the size of the topic to be taught, the size of class and the size of the period. It is designed to develop one teaching skill at a time. It is used in written and oral form for the modification of pupil-teachers and also for the in-service teachers.
(c) Unwritten Form Approach : The unwritten lesson plans are developed by the in-service teachers. They develop the outline of his teaching activities at their cognitive level, before entering in the classroom. The written lesson plans are generally rigid because pupil-teachers have followed the rigidly for developing in teaching efficiency whereas unwritten lesson-plans are relatively flexible and such lesson-plans are used by the in-service teachers. They develop tentative outline of their teaching activities, therefore, it can be changed according to the classroom situations and needs of the students. It is essential even for a more experienced teacher to develop an outline of teaching takes at his cognitive level before his teaching.