Institutional management is an attempt to organize resource for the attainment of a chosen goal. In other words, it is purposeful action. Educational planning like other planning “implies the taking of decision for future action with a view to achieving predetermined objectives through the optimum use of scares resources.” Hence it implies three important stages-taking of decision, working for predetermined objectives, and the fulfillment making optimum use of the resource available both physical and human.
Planning and evaluation are linked together in two ways. One is that planning itself is an educational process and second is that the fruits of planning can yield results only when the people are educated to make full use of the increased means of production and understand the objectives of planning and try consciously to achieve them. In the field of education, planning is needed in teaching, in organization, in administration in business etc. It helps in systematizing, in administration in business etc. It helps in systematizing the work and fixing up aims and objectives of planning. “Each institution will have to learn to plan development on its own line within the broad framework of National Policy on Education.”
To create a planning atmosphere in each institution the Indian Education Commission (1964-66) has recommended institutional planning for this purpose. Each institution should have its own long-term and short-term purpose. Thus plans can be initiated, formulated and implemented by individual educational institution throughout the country.
When a plan is prepared by a particular institution on the basis of its own development and improvement, we call it institutional plan. Some eminent authorities have defined institutional planning in the following way.
A programme of development and improvement prepared by an educational institution on the basis of its felt needs and the resources available or are likely to be available, with a view to improving the school programme and school practices constitute a plan for an institution. The plan may be for a longer duration or a shorter duration. —W.M. Buch
If education does not bring in always something which is new, it is not different form traditions. I think the whole notion of institutional planning is based on this idea that at every stage right from the school to the topmost level in the field of education constant effort has to be made in order that we don’t have new ideas for the sake of new ideas but in order that we can do a better job with whatever resources we have at our command. —Dr. Shib K. Mitra
Institutional planning is a milestone in the journey towards the improvement of education. The teacher is the kingpin in any educational effort. It is for the first time that the teaching community is being asked to act as the planner and executor of educational improvement. —E. W. Franklin
It is a fact of experience that no two schools can be identical in their needs and requirements. Hence every school will have to prepare an institutional plan for itself independently. An ideal school plan will have the following characteristics.
1. It should be need based. It should be prepared according to the needs of the institution and not on the basis of grants sanctioned.
2. It should aim at the maximum use of the available human and material resources.
3. It should be a ‘plan of work’ and not a charter of demands. In other words, it must aim at utilizing what is available and not demanding what is not available and/or is available to more fortunate schools.
4. It should limit itself to the total improvement of the school and should not suggest work for the district educational authorities or demand funds from the directorate of education for its implementation.
5. If, at all, it needs more finance, the same should be available from the local community which must be a party to the preparation of the school plan.
6. It should be based on certain ‘predetermined objectives’ and goals and all activities planned should help directly or indirectly to achieve these ends.
7. The plan should have a well-defined and finely classified activities for the school improvement and school development.
8. It should be flexible in nature so that at various stages of its implementation changes may be effected according to needs and requirements. How-so-ever brilliantly a plan may be prepared, there can be some unforeseen circumstances which may, later on, force an amendment.
9. It should only further the cause of education-its quality and quantity and should not criticize and condemn the approach of the district authorities or the directorate of education.
10. It should be in consonance with the district educational plan and should in no-case run contrary to it.
11. It should be neither too ambitious to be implemented nor too modest to make any appreciable improvement. It should, therefore, be working plan based on the capacity of teachers, the needs of the students and the local community.
12. It should clearly indicate the time limit for its implementation. It can be a short term one or a long term one depending upon the circumstances and needs of the school.
13. It should have a plan of evaluation also, so that the result of the efforts could be evaluated after some intervals, say every years.
14. It should have a balanced approach so that it does not towards academics or out of class activities alone. The principal has to play a very important role as a coordinator.
Each institution should prepare the plan on the basis of the following characteristics;
1. On the academic side institutional planning should aim at.
2. On the skill side it should aim at :
3. On the attitude side it should aim at
4. On the economic side it should aim at :
5. If it is a newly started school, the first aim should be to give a firm footing to it. But if it is an old and established one, the main objectives would be to review and if need be, to redefine its philosophy.
6. On the political side it should aim at developing democratic attitude the teachers and the students.
Areas of Institutional Planning
1. Administration : A number of projects can be taken up to improve administration, for instance, developing procedures to increase the effectiveness of staff meetings; Improving supervision; Improving Principal-Faculty Relations; Improving Staff relations; Democratic organization of school giving main responsibility to pupils.
2. School-Community relations : Utilizing community resource for better learning in different subjects ; Arranging talks by commune members etc.
3. Academic : Improving reading habits through a planned use of library; Improving internal examinations; Reducing wastage and stagnation; Assistance to retarded students : Education of the gifted; Use of bulletin board for improved teaching.
4. Co-curricular Activities : Trying out different ways of organising co-curricular activities; Better use of leisure by teachers as well as students; Trying out new programmes in school assembly; Promoting student interests in school activities; Developing hobbies among students and so on.
5. Discipline : Finding out ways for removing various evils like truancy, stealing etc : Projects in democratic organisation of school giving more responsibility to pupils; Mock Parliament in school etc.
An Elementary school is the basic need of our society. This is the first level of Education, Management of Education at this level is not an easy task. There are different categories in which management is necessary. Without proper management, it is very difficult to implement all the educational plans. Here we will discuss all the things in which we need management at this level of Education.
3.4.1 School Infrastructure
School building and management is a major part of Educational management. There are various things which we will discuss in the following heads.
A school building must be excellent, spacious functional and with pleasing architectural features. Notes “Buildings are to education as body is to the mind.” “A sound mind can only be there in a sound body.” It is the statement ; “A fine building makes a fine school and a poor building a poor one.” School should be housed in beautiful buildings, which are not only stimulating centres of education for children but also vital centres of community life. The American Association of School Administrators has suggested the following seven principles for planning a school plant building:
1. Curriculum adequacy : The institution must be planned to provide the facilities necessary for the efficient and effective accommodation of all the phases of the curricular, co-curricular and community activities for which the plant is intended.
2. Safety and well-being : The school should be so planned as to protect the comfort health and safety of pupils, teachers, and all who will use its facilities. Lighting, heating and ventilating should be in accordance with the best practices.
3. Interfunctional co-ordination : Each unit or portion of a plant may be well-planned for its specific purpose, yet if the units are not put together with respect to their mutual relationships, the plant, as a whole, will be unsatisfactory. For example, certain rooms, because of their association, should be planned ensuite. The noisy units should be located, so as not to interfere with quite zones.
4. Efficiency and Unity : The school plant should be planned and assembled in a manner that will promote efficient school management and convenience of pupils and the public in its use.
5. Beauty : The entire school plant should be cheerful, attractive and pleasing.
6. Adaptability : A school plant should be planned for economical future adaptations to changing requirements.
7. Economy : A school plant should be economical in its original cost, upkeep and operation. Any material — metal, glass or kacha material, all should be universally adopted to the uses of young life growing up in sunlight and cherishing the ground as its native birthright. Low initial cost, functionality, durability, appearance, acoustical properties cost of maintenance and low operational costs should decide the type of building.
The headmaster is the kingpin in any educational effort. Since he is the pilot and the navigator, he alone can find a path to the destination howsoever zig-zag it might be.
3.4.2 The School Office
The school office is the nerve centre of the school plant where various records, reports and registers are stored, where the important matters of administrative policy are discussed and where the visitors are received. It serves as a ’home-base’ for the principal, ‘professional centre’ for the school staff, and the ‘service-centre’ for the entire school. It is fulcrum around which the whole of the school rotates. On its efficient organisation and management depends the efficient administration of the entire school.
Functions of the School Office
1. Up-to-date file of data about the children : Teachers should be free from the onerous task of book-keeping wherever possible. The clerk should be mainly responsible for book-keeping, so that teachers energies may be released for the creative job of guiding the development of children.
2. Setting up the actual schedules : Every school has to establish certain schedules for the control of such materials and spaces as the Assembly-Hall, Music Room, Laboratories, Workshops, Visual education equipment, text books, supplies etc. After the teachers have determined the ways by which they desire these to be handled, the office can take the responsibility of setting up the actual schedules. The office can circulate the blank schedules for the use of different faculties, get the teachers comments, get the principal’s final approval, prepare a master copy of the schedule, duplicate it or type it so that each teacher could have a copy for constant reference. Thus office can act as a service agency.
3. Making up supply order and doing the actual purchasing : Let each teacher determine his own needs, all of which may be sent to office and compiled as a total list of needs for the school. This compilation may be examined by the staff to determine whether the total is within the limits set for such expenditures. Any cuts in amounts or kinds of material may be co-operatively agreed upon by all teachers. Thus the approved revised list may be sent to the office for ordering. It is the responsibility of the office to order the goods, and deliver the goods to the individual teachers. Thus the office can also act as a central collecting and distributing agency.
4. Help teachers in survey tests : After the teachers have agreed upon The kind of testing programme they desire and have selected the test appropriate to their purposes, the actual task of ordering and distributing the tests can be handled by the office. The office can help the teacher perform his or her tasks with a minimum of clerical labour.
5. Help in duplication or typing of teacher-made materials : Modern school techniques include the use of teachers made materials, materials that are made specially for an actual group of children, based on their present needs. The office can prove useful here as well. New materials, assignments etc. can be duplicated by the school office. In this way, office can help in good teaching practices as well.
6. Help in acquainting the community with the work of the school through desirable publicity programmes : Copy of newspaper releases, brochures depicting the work of the school, notices sent home with children announcing school functions, invitations to parents and patrons to visit the school-are some of the ways by which the office can lighten the burden of the teacher. Whenever the school needs to communicate with the outside world, the school office should supply the technical facilities.
The school clerk can be assigned the following duties :
The clerk should be trained in these jobs.
The different letters, papers and reports have to be filed in such a careful manner that the documents are available at a moment’s notice when required.
1. The Flat File System : It is very useful for some schools. The files are kept in a wooden-box with a number of drawers-one drawer is used for two or three alphabets. The names of files in each drawer are pasted on one side of the box.
2. The Vertical File System : It is generally adopted in schools. All materials pertaining to a subject are filed together. The files are arranged in alphabetical order and there is an alphabetic index. A number of compartments in the office rack may be labelled according to the nature of the problem e.g. “Urgent”, “Deffered”, “Immediate”, “Reports from teachers” and so on. This will facilitate handling cases according to priority.
Principles of farm Management
“It is a fundamental error to suppose that farming is neither a business nor a profession. It is a business which requires the highest business talent ; it is a profession which requires the best technical skill. No other profession requires such a variety of learning, such an insight into Nature and such a skill of technical kind in order to be successful as the profession of farming.”
It is necessary that 10 acres of land are attached with every school and this farm is easily accessible. The work of the farm demands system. A specific decision must be made by the teacher about economic organisation and operation of the farm. He must decide about the kinds and amount of resources to use and the products to produce. He must know how to get the work done ; sequence of operation ; how much time to devote to each job and the method of doing the same. Farming is concerned directly with ‘lie’ and ‘layout’ of the land, water-supply, soil management, farm equipment, seeds, manure, marketing of the products etc. In farming, the major factor which matters is ‘nature’. Nature will neither be forced nor driven, and is very often very hard to be led, but will do wonders when properly assisted. It is for this reason, scientific planning and management is important. Good management can ensure continuous profits consistent with the welfare of the school.
Secondary Schools play a very important role in every student. Students spend their most crucial and adolescence years in it, so there are different needs and different aspects as according to their course choices, interests etc.
All the things are same, in school and class structure but, some important buildings like laboratories, libraries, gymnasium are on addition. Here we will discuss them.
3.5.1 Different Types of Designs for Secondary Schools
Following types of designs are in vogue for secondary schools in our country :
1. The I type—consisting of a row of class-rooms.
2. The L type—I type with an extension on one side.
3. The T type—I type with extension on one side both ways.
4. The U type—Two I’s joined on one side.
5. The E Type, and
6. The H type.
Any one of the-above six types can be selected for a Middle or High school which does not need more than 25 rooms. The selection depends upon following factors :
1. The size and shape of the site.
2. The number of rooms needed.
3. The possibility of future expansion.
If more expansion is expected, we can select H type as expansion will be possible by lengthening the vertical side-rooms. At the same time, erecting the second storey will not entail much difficulty.
The above types of designs will not suit a multipurpose school which is supposed to provide a number of elective groups and a number of departments like the science section, the technology section, the art section, the commerce section, the agriculture section, the humanities section. A full-fledged residential multipurpose school also needs an extension campus, the hall, the hostel, the staff quarters, the agricultural farm, play-grounds etc.
An ideal school building should be planned spaciously, functionally and with pleasing architectural features. It should stand out in the village or city as something of which the local community can be proud of.
1. Simple but elegant and beautiful design.
2. Low cost.
3. Comprehensive Plan : A comprehensive plan is necessary in which function and space are so harmonised tha the soil from which the synthesis grows, will be enriched by such a pattern.
4. Maximum Utility : It must give the maximum utility to the pupils, as regards accommodation protection from weather maximum light, maximum ventilation, free movement and comfortable stay in the room for longer hours.
5. High standard Material : The material used for the building must be of high standard to enable them to stand the great load put on its use.
3.5.2 Class-Rooms in School Plant
In a secondary school each section of students should have a room, though, two sections or more can be accommodated in one big room designed to seat about 70 pupils. Some rooms should accommodate as many as 70 and others 30 — 40 students. About one fourth to one fifth of the rooms should be larger and smaller than the average.
All class-rooms should be workshops or learning laboratories. Each room should have its individual character. The new tendency is to have a larger period, a portion of which is to be utilized for directed study. There is also a tendency towards more informal small group activities and therefore, more space is needed for books, reference books etc. Twenty-five to 35 sq. ft. of space per pupil is desirable. The class-rooms should be further provided with adequate storage cabinets, shelves and filing cases for teaching supplies, materials and books. Sufficient tack board at eye level and black board should be provided for the teaching programmes.
The class-room should present a pleasant and inviting look. The walls should be painted with some light colour. The rooms should be tastefully decorated. Rooms with northern and eastern light should have warm colours such as red, yellow, orange, etc. Rooms with southern and western light should have cool colours such as green blue and certain compositions of grey. In dark coloured wall-rooms, ceiling should be white, in others, it should be cream coloured.
The walls of the room should be utilized to the fullest advantage. One wall should have writing surface throughout its length, and green is preferable to black because the latter causes glare. One wall should have wooden surface covered with flannel for pinning notices, news sheets, charts, maps etc. The other walls should have built-in cup-boards for keeping books, equipment and other teaching aids. The class-room should have one door opening outside.
Requirements of a Classroom
1. Space : A classroom needs plenty of area, lighting, ventilation, furniture of good taste and decoration of atmosphere. A room should be large enough to accommodate 40 to 45 pupils. The dimensions should be 22 x 23. The Secondary Education Commission recommends that with a view to establishing personal contact between the teacher and the taught and to exert a wholesome influence on the pupils the optimum number that should be admitted to any class should be 30 and the maximum should not exceed 40. On general principle each pupil must have a space of ten square feet. The height of the room must not be beyond 15 feet. A very high room will mean more cost without any commensurate advantage in the educational effort. Moreover, a very high room is hard to ventilate or decorate easily.
2. Lighting : Proper means of lighting should be provided. Every room should be well-lighted. Light should be well diffused and should not fall directly on the eyes of the students. It should come from the left. Where light from the left is not possible, light from the right may be allowed. Direct front light will be injurious. The desks, therefore, should be arranged in such a manner so to take full advantage of light coming from the left; otherwise the light will either shine in the teacher’s face or dazzle the children. The colour of the walls also should not tax the eyes of the students. Windows serve two purposes : admission of light and admission of air. The window area should not be less than one-fifth of the floor area. The window still should be placed at not more than four feet and not less than three-and-a-half feet above the floor of rooms in which the students are seated.
3. Ventilation : Ventilation can be done by natural and artificial methods. Natural ventilation depends upon natural forces while artificial ventilation is brought above by the use of fans etc.
4. The Blackboard : The blackboard is a very necessary equipment of the class-room and a handy apparatus in hands of a teacher. A teacher who does not use the blackboard properly is not a good teacher. There are usually two types of blackboards — wall blackboards and easel blackboards. The latter are better as they can be moved to any part of the room and their angle changed to suit the light. The blackboards should never be placed between windows. Its back should not be towards the light, otherwise the surface would be dark and it will tax the eyes of the students in trying to read what is written on the blackboard. The blackboard should be either black or green in colour.
5. Furniture : The Secondary Education Commission observes : The whole of the furniture and equipment of a school can be divided into two sections—movable and immovable. The latter are usually provided during the courses of the building and since they are fixtures, great care should be given to their design. Movable furniture should be given equal thought and because it can be moved, there can be variety in design, the school furniture and equipment is a very prominent feature in the child’s environment. It should be pleasing the design and efficient in function.
The child spends a good deal of time at desk, it is but obvious that right postures can be maintained only when good seats are provided. A comfortable child will pay more attention and concentration to his work. The following points should be borne in mind while providing furniture to the students in the classroom :
The class-room should have not only space for good study but adequate space for using maps, charts, pictures, specimens, models, exhibits, reference books, tools, craft materials, experiment apparatus and the like. Every instructional room should provide a healthful living and working environment for pupils and teachers.
1. Library and Reading Room : Library is the hub of the academic life of a school. With the new techniques of teaching, library should be the centre of the school educational programme. When resources permit, reading room should be separate from the library hall, otherwise the square hall preferably 24 × 80 sq. ft. can serve both the needs. The secondary school library should be easily accessible to all class-rooms and near those departments that use it most, but remote from centres of noisy activities, such as the street or athletic field.
2. Assembly Hall : The hall can be used as a multi-purpose room, as an auditorium with a combination of functions such as gymnasium and refreshment room, or as the audio-visual room. Its size will be determined by the local needs, but the hall should have a suitable stage of not less than 20 by 30 feet with green rooms and other equipment and furnishings. It should be located on the ground floor and possibly in a wing isolated from the quieter areas to ensure safety of crowds, easy access for both pupils and the public, reduced sound interference and accessibility to parking.
3. Medical Examination Room : Every secondary school should have a room set aside for medical and dental services, equipped with running water and electric power outlets.
4. The Office Room : To serve as a good co-ordinating centre for the school. The office room should be centrally located. It should be easily accessible to visitors, teachers and pupils. A good office in a large secondary school requires four things :
Alternatively a part of the Headmaster’s room may be used for receiving visitors while office and educational files may be stored in wall cupboards in the clerk’s room.
The school office should be equipped with modern equipment. It should have timesaving devices as the type-writer, duplicating machine, desk calendar and rubber stamps, clock for the bell system storage space for instruction and office supplies. They must be telephone, book-keeping machine, sorting equipment and computing machines etc. A fire proof vault or safe is a ‘must’ in every office for the safe keeping of cash and confidential records.
5. Staff Room : A room should be made available to teachers where they can meet each other, may work together or individually. It should have cupboards in the walls or lockers may be there where the teachers may keep their things.
6. Storage and Supply Rooms : Some rooms should be provided for storing the tools, unused furniture, laboratory, workshop and office equipment athletic supplies etc. These stores should be at a fairly safe place.
The School Play-Grounds
The play ground and few other smaller areas for different games are as important for educational purpose as school building with their class-rooms and other paraphernalia. When play is to be accepted to be the natural agency for the education of the child upto the age of puberty, then school must have playgrounds for activities, games or projects which can be conducted only in the open. Hence schools must provide open spaces garden plots areas, sufficient ground spaces under shady trees and so on for different types of school work.
Colleges or higher education institution are made for giving job oriented information, they prepare students in a particular field in a specialized way. So many things are same as secondary schools and some are different.
3.6.1 College Structure
There is no big difference between secondary school and college building structure, but as the college has different faculties, a huge quantity of students of various courses, there is larger and bigger building structure. There is big laboratories as compared to schools, big halls, theatres, music rooms, as according to the courses in which they enroll.
3.6.2 Classroom structure
Rooms are big and airy in which students of college may study in a better environment.
In the school the emphasis must shift from examination to education. Teachers and children should concentrate on the real purpose of the school and take examination in their stride. Much greater credit can be given to the actual work done by the students from day-to-day, of which careful and complete records should be maintained. Moreover, in assessing his progressed and his position, factors other than academic achievement should be given due weight his social sense, initiative, truthfulness discipline, co-operation leadership, etc.
Objectives of School Records
1. To help the School
2. To help the Class-room Teacher
3. To help the Pupil
Types of School records
School records and registers can be broadly classified under the following heads :
1. General Records : (i) School Calendar, (ii) Log Book, (iii) Visitors’ Book, (iv) Service Registers, (v) Admission and Withdrawal Register, (vi) Transfer Certificate Book, (vii) General Order Book.
2. Financial Records : (i) Acquittance Roll, (ii) Contingency, (iii) Contingent Order Book, (iv) Free Collection Register, (v) Abstract Register of Fees, (vi) Bill Register, (vii) Register of Donations, (iii) Register of Scholarships, (ix) Boys’ Fund Register.
3. Educational Records : (i) Pupils Attendance Register, (ii) ‘Teachers’ Attendance Register, (iii) Class Time-Table, (iv) General Time-table, (v) Teacher’s Monthly Programme of Work, (vi) Monthly Progress Register, (vii) Terminal Examination Result Register, (viii) Headmaster’s Supervision Register, (ix) Private Tuitions Register, (xi) Cumulative Records.
4. Equipment Records : (i) Stock Book of Furniture and School Appliance, (ii) Library Catalogue, (iii) Accession Register, (iv) Issue Books, Register of Newspapers and Magazines received, (v) Stock and Issue Register of Sports Material.
5. Correspondence Records : (i) ‘From’ and ‘To’ Registers, (ii) Peon Book, (iii) Memo Book, (iv) Notes File of Department Orders, (v) Register of Casual Leave Granted.
6. Account Books : (i) Cash Book for Daily Receipts and Expenditure, (ii) General Ledger or Classified Abstract of the Monthly Totals, (iii) Remittance Book, (iv) Register of Pay Bills.
7. Special Registers Maintained by the Basic Schools : (i) Craft-work Record, (ii) Community Activity Records, (iii) Production Register, (iv) Producers’ Register, (v) Art Work Record, (vi) Hobbies Record, (vii) Physical Education Programme Records, (viii) Scholar-ship Subjects Achievement Records.
A stock list of registers should be prepared in the school. On the outer cover of each register, the following particulars should be written directly :
(i) The name of the school.
(ii) The serial number of the register.
(iii) The name of the register.
(iv) The number of volume.
(v) The number of pages of the volume
(vi) The opening and closing dates.
Maintenance of School Records
1. Stock List : In every institution, a stock lists of registers should be prepared.
2. Particulars : On the outer cover of each register, the following particulars should be written:
(i) The name of the school,
(ii) The Serial No. of the register,
(iii) The name of the register,
(iv) Number of the volume.
(v) The number of pages in the volume and dates on which the volume was opened and closed.
3. Pages : When a register is opened, the pages should be numbered consecutively, either in red ink or with a numbering machine.
4. Registration : Registration should be kept tidy. Writing and figuring should be such as will give a neat appearance to the entries. Figures must not be joined. Registers should not be folded or the pages crumpled. Over-writing should not be permitted.
5. Countersigning : Entries should be countersigned by the principal. A new volume of a register should not be opened every year, if the previous volume contains some blank pages. Whenever a fresh book is put into use, a remark on the flysheet of the book that the previous volume has been fully used and lodged in the records should be recorded and the date from which the new register is used and the number of pages it contains should also be noted therein.
The School Calendar
School calendar is a useful record. It helps in the systematic organisation of school activities. It should contain the following items of information :
1. General, partial and local holidays.
2. Dates for the submission of monthly, quarterly, half yearly and annual reports and returns.
3. Dates of public and school examinations.
4. Dates of sending up applications for public examinations.
5. Dates of meetings of School Committees, Teachers Associations, different clubs and societies, school tournaments, school excursions and educational tours.
6. The dates of periodic and terminal tests in different subjects.
The school calendar, gives us a clear picture of various activities to be conducted throughout the academic year. It is helpful to the administrator, teachers and pupils.
The Log Book
Every school should keep a Log Book. At present only the inspecting officers are entitled to put down their remarks in it. But it should contain a complete record of events and furnish material for a history of the school. It should mention special events, the introduction of new text-books, apparatus or courses of instructions, any plan of lessons approved by the inspector, the visits of the inspecting officers and other distinguished persons interested in education, absence and illness of any of the school staff and any failure in duty on their part, changes in the working hours of school, some special circumstances affecting the school that may deserve to be recorded for future reference or any other reason.
A record of all the pupils who are admitted to the school. The Admission Register contains the date of admission, the serial number of the pupil, the age and name of the pupil, the father’s name, caste, occupation and address, the class to which the pupil is admitted and the date on which he leaves the school. An admission register has to be preserved permanently and is often required by some superior authority in a court of law as evidence for the date of birth of a pupil. Special care should be taken in keeping the register so that there are no mistakes whatsoever, especially in the column of the date of birth of the pupil when he is admitted to the school. Fresh entries have to be made when pupils move from one department to another in the school.
Pupils’ Attendance Register
Only one attendance register should be kept by one teacher. Exceptions may be made, however, in those cases where classes are small. As the attendance registers provide a separate column for each session of the school day, attendance has to be marked for both the morning and the afternoon sessions, as soon as the class assembles at the prescribed time. Holidays and their nature should be shown in the attendance register. It should show the absences, tardiness, entrances, withdrawls, promotions, failures and other information which may be desired by the administrators.
Attendance, registers should be preserved for five years.
All financial transactions occurring from day to day in a school are to a entered in a cash book. It should be a bound volume and containing pages numbered in print. All transactions to which a principal is a party in his official capacity must be brought in the school cash book. All sorts of amounts received on a particular date should be deposited in full into a Government Treasury or the Bank, as the case may be.
Specimen of Cash Book Notes
All transactions relating to the school, such as salary, fees and fines, should be entered in the cash book. It must be kept up-to-date. There must be agreement between entries in the cash book and the corresponding entries in the other registers such as contingent register, Union Account Register, Admission Fee Register, Medical Register, Games Account Register, etc.
Stock Register of School Equipment
Whenever any equipment or furniture, that is of a more or less permanent nature, is bought and placed in the school, it must be duly entered in the stock register. Along With the name of the article should appear the date of its receipt in the school, its price, and name of authority who ordered the purchase. The stock of equipment should be checked by the principal at least once a year. Verification should be recorded in stock register, with an explanation for discrepancy if any, and action taken for its regularisation. Checking is much simplified if room-wise inventories are prepared. A duplicate of the inventories in each room may be displayed in each room and items added as articles are placed in the room or scored off, if they are taken away from the room. The teachers in charge of rooms have then a better chance of keeping a check on it and checking is made much easier. Nothing should be struck off the register without the permission of the officer competent to do so.
Teachers’ Attendance Register
It records the daily attendance of the teachers in a school showing the time of arrival and the time of departure of the teacher each day. It should be regularly filled in and signed by all teachers, morning and afternoon, every day. Late comers should indicate the time at which they arrive. The principal should also mark his own attendance and check the attendance of his assistants at the commencement of each school session. Holidays and their nature should also be indicated in it. Leave and nature of the leave should be shown and all application for leave should be filed in the school office. The number of days of casual leave or other leave taken by each teacher during the month, should be noted in the register by the principal at the end of the month.
There should be a complete personnel record of all the employees. It is valuable in helping the principal to study and become, acquainted with the teaching personnel. It is also essential for the teachers welfare.
All pupils should be required to furnish certain general information upon entering school for the first time. The enrolment card should be made in duplicate, one for the superintendent’s office and one for the principal’s office. If may be used as a continuous enrolment card and should be kept up-to-date at all times, Some schools print the enrolment card in different colours, one colour for the superintendent’s office and another colour for the principal’s office.
Popularly known as progress report, this report card establishes a link between the parents and the teacher. It should give an honest and complete evaluation of the child’s growth and development. It should stress the kinds of behaviour in a democracy. It should provide for individual differences. It should be constructive, diagnostic, and complete in all phases of child growth and development. The reporting system developed co-operatively by all concerned should be consistent with the educational philosophy of the whole school.
Promotion and failure Report
Some schools make out a promotion and failure report at the end of each year. It may show the principal certain danger points which deserve his attention. It will also give a teacher a chance to see his position in relation to the whole school. If a grade or subject have an unusually high percentage of failures, further investigations should be made to find out the reasons. Through such studies the principal of a school can locate pupil promotion problems that should be solved.
The Secondary Education Commission has recommended the maintenance of cumulative record of each pupil by the class teachers. It will include not only the personal data of the pupil but also his school-attainments, health report, personality traits and participation in activities.
Placing a great emphasis on the cumulative records Indian Education Commission 1964-65 said, “Cumulative record cards play a vital role in indicating the growth and development of the pupil at each stage, his academic and emotional stage, his academic and emotional problems, and his difficulties of adjustment if any, and the directions in which remedial action is to be taken to solve his problem or difficulties.”
“When a school accepts the philosophy that it has the duty to meet the needs of its students in their growth towards proper development, it would provide for gathering, recording, and using cumulative factual evidence of each pupil’s growth, adjustment and potential.” The cumulative record is a systematic accumulation of significant factual information about an individual which when progressively developed and maintained over a sufficient period of time, gives a summarized “growth record” indicating the direction and rate of development.
Cumulative record shirts the emphasis from a one time or once-a-year performance in a few academic subjects to the full development in practically all the important aspects of education and general, physical, social and mental development over a longer period of time. This shift of emphasis is necessary before examination reform can be taken up.
Objectives of Cumulative Record
1. To give a “comparative” achievement of pupils : A pupil’s achievement is compared with that of his class mates. This comparative function is helpful in selection, promotion and classification of students for various jobs in the school and later life.
2. To interpret progress and behaviour : The cumulative information and data collected over a continuous period regarding a pupil helps us to understand his progress or lack of it; and his behaviour is interpreted. Proper educational and other kinds of guidance can then be given.
3. To preserve results : Cumulative record preserves the results of four to ten independent and objective studies brought together on one card. It is based on the belief that such assessments are more informative than one, and that guidance may be more effectively given in the light of such a series of measurements than in terms of the results of one selective examination.
4. To give a full view of the student : Cumulative record should show his interests, preferences, achievements, leisure time activities, his reading interests, his special traits, his attitudes, his special aptitudes. It should give both a clear cross-sectional and a longitudinal view of the student. It should show his status in different areas of the growth. It should disclose developmental gtrends by showing his status in these areas at different times in the past. It should tell a story of the child’s growth and development in relation to the goals and objectives of the school’s educational programme. But it should never become so unwieldy and complex that it becomes a burden rather than an asset in guiding pupils. It should be so planned that there is minimum of clerical work.
Designs of the Cumulative Record
1. Folder type : It is a broad card which can be folded into many parts-say eight parts having sixteen pages. The first four parts are used for permanent record and the next four for periodical records. Some pages are kept blank for annual entries.
2. File type : A file may be maintained for each pupil. The permanent record is written on the printed columns of the cover. The periodical data of achievement and activities are entered on separate leaves of paper for each period or year, to be inserted and added year after year.
3. Envelope type : When closed on three sides and kept open on one side the file type forms an envelop. The permanent record is entered on the front and back cover. The periodic record is entered on separate leaves tagged together and inserted into the envelope.
Characteristics of a Cumulative Record System
1. It is started for each child at the time of his entrance to school.
2. It is transferred as the child progresses from lower to higher school or moves to another school.
3. It presents a comprehensive picture of the child’s growth and development.
4. The forms used are simple and easy to understand.
5. Its maintenance does not require too much of clerical work.
6. It is flexible, requiring a minimum of data for all pupils but permitting great latitude in the types of additional data which may be accumulated for individual pupils.
7. It is so designed that it reveals trends of growth over a period of year. Data which are cumulative can be presented in chronological sequence. All entries are dated. Informal data are summarized at the end of each school year to reveal evidence of pupil growth, as well as his special needs and problems.
8. It is readily accessible to teachers. However, the confidential nature of data must be respected and the records always kept in a secure place.
9. In the recording of date every attempt is made to distinguish facts from personal opinions. Teachers must distinguish between objective facts and subjective impressions.
10. It enables teachers to think more about what happens to the pupil in all his areas of development.
Problems regarding the Maintenance of Records
1. Who should maintain the record cards ? : The teachers in charge of various subjects should maintain records and evaluate the child’s achievements from time to time and to record the same. The class teacher should maintain a file containing the record cards of all the students in his class. He should be responsible for getting the necessary entries made by subject teacher or class teacher or teacher incharge of various activities. He is to act as a liaison between the pupil and the subject matter and between the pupil and the parents.
2. Where to keep them : The record should remain with the class teacher, but should be easily accessible to the other teachers. Whenever they want to make entries, the best place is the principal’s room or the staff room where these remain confidential.
3. When to fill up these cards ? : Record of written work may be kept by the teacher and entries made fortnightly and monthly. Other entries may be made at the time pf particular event or tests. Each teacher should have a small note-book in which he records his observation at the time of incident about a particular pupil and then makes entries in the card at some convenient time.
4. How do check the maintenance of the cumulative record ? : The principal or one of the teachers should keep a proper check to see whether the entries are being made regularly by each teacher. The principal should sign the records and arrange to send reports of the pupils’ achievement to their parents at regular intervals.
Criteria of a Good Cumulative Record
1. Validity : It must be true, exact and authentic. Nothing based on rumour or second hand information should find a place in it.
2. Objectivity and reliability : Personal opinions and judgments should be avoided. The teacher should maintain an objective outlook.
3. Usability : It must be usable and readily accessible. The arrangement of date must facilitate ready interpretations.
4. Comprehensiveness : The information recorded should be so comprehensive to give a complete pictures of the child both horizontal as well as vertical.