Management is, a social process, responsible for the effective and economical planning and regulation of the operations of the organization. It consists of a number of sub-functions such as planning, decision-making, implementing plans and decisions, guiding other employees, integrating and motivating them, supervising the personnel, managing conflicts, and so on. Who initiated this controversy in 1923. He regarded administration as that function of the industry concerned with the determination of the corporate policy, the coordination of finance, production and distribution, the settlement of the structure of the organization under the ultimate control of the executive. Manage is the function of the industry concerned with the execution of policy within the limits set-up by administration and the employment of the organization for the particular object before it. Florence and Tead also hold the same view. Contributing to the same view Spriegel says that administration is the ‘determinative function’ and management is ‘executive function’. A growing number of educators have become interested in the study of educational futures, or as it is sometimes referred to, educational policy studies or policies research. Their forecasts vary, both in terms of the educational topics they choose to study and in terms of their actual projections.
Among the topics education futurists have selected for study and research are curriculum content (i.e., knowledge, skills, values, and attitudes), materials and methods; school and curriculum organization patterns ; patterns; preserves and in-service education of teachers, schemes for financing public, private, and parochial schools; teachers organizations or unions, and salaries and benefits; student demographic characteristics; educational media and technology; politics and control of education ; global, international education; functions of non-school educative agents, such as publishers, commercial television, families, and community agencies; and school buildings and other learning environments.
Managements may be seen as a person or a group of people. For example, a teacher could say ‘The school management has changed the timetable in the middle of the term’. This could be referring to you, as the head alone, or to all the senior staff, or it could refer to the members of the board of governors or school committee. In schools with several promoted staff a senior management team’ might be formed in much the same way as a government has a cabinet of ministers.
In this sense, management is a field of study with various subjects and topics. Knowledge, skills and attitudes in management can be acquired through learning, from experience and from certificated courses.
Management is a collection of processes, including such things as decision-making, problem-solving and action-planning. These processes involve the management of resources including human, material, financial and time. These processes are also known as the functions of managers.
There was limited needs of human being prior to development. A person fulfilled his needs of his own efforts, but now a person has large number needs which he can not satisfy his own. He has to take help of other. There are several types of organizations around us. Such as formal, informal, social, economic vocational, administrative, political, educational etc. An organization is group of individuals which has its definite objectives to be achieved by the joint efforts. There is need of management to integrate and to administer. The meaning of the term ‘manage’ the term ‘management’ in education is related of the following components.
(1) Educational Planning.
(2) Educational Organising
(3) Educational Directing
(4) Educational Controlling
(5) Educational Evaluating
Through the planning process the head aims to manage an efficient and an effective school. Efficient means using minimum resources to get maximum results on time. Effective means to achieve the set of objectives. The third part of the planning stage is thus to decide on an appropriate strategy.
Organising involves putting in order of priority and preference the resources which are available. An Action Plan is needed in which actions and activities are scheduled. In order to give the plan ‘teeth’, targets are set. These targets should be quite easily attainable within a short period of time.
The manager needs to direct the implementation of the plan. He or she should provide leadership by delegating duties and responsibilities to staff, and by motivating them. The directing process also involves co-ordinating and controlling the supply and use of resources.
Control involves the human element. Men act under the pressure of power and authority, no doubt. But they act more by their own impulses, motives, like and dislikes, etc. Moreover individuals differ in their capacities and also in their reaction to the forces of power. The good manager realises the importance of the human element.
Evaluation seeks to provide better service. By constant appraisal of procedures, If suggests their, modification in the light of experiences gained and to adjust the forces and methods accordingly. The manager should encourage self-appraisal by the workers so that they are able to judge the quality and quantity of their individual contribution to the group effort.
Planning is a method of approaching problems and as the later change and differ from time to time and situation to situation, planning should be continuous, dynamic and flexible. Their success depends upon other individuals understanding and willingness to cooperate, i.e., upon their identification of themselves with the activity, its purpose and its success. Planning for others does not bring. Good results, for the individuals keep themselves detached and unconcerned. Good administrators plan with others, their participation leads to identification and successful operation. A wise administrator stimulates group planning without dominating group decisions and actions.
Planning is useful because it clarifies what is to be accomplished. It saves time, effort and money and increases efficiency and effectiveness. It is, therefore, fundamental to the administrative process and a vital step in the enterprise. Democratic society is dynamic and changing for the better. Change is the low of nature and is bound to come. Evolutionary change is better than the revolutionary. It is necessary to bring about change is a smooth and orderly process. The alternative to planning is the trial-and-error approach, which is dangerous and wasteful. Planning is, therefore, indispensable. It requires future objectives, good perception and vision, and ability to profit from theoretical experience in advance of the fact.
Basic Principles of Planning
Basic principles of good planning : 1. It should be
related to an integrated with, the broad social planning for progress.
2. It should be based on extensive research to save it from subjectivity and conjectures.
3. It should look both to the present and the future.
4. It should solve the problems as they arise, so it should be realistic and practical and must be periodically reviewed and revised.
5. It should utilise all available resources.
6. It should be carried under favourable conditions, i.e, experts (without their domination).
Educational Management of Teaching-Learning Process
This concept is based upon modern theory of organization. It is task and relationship – centred. This has two type of teaching activities : First activity is to organize teaching learning situations and second activity is to perform teaching learning tasks. Betrand Russel has pointed out these two teaching activities :
“First alteriag the position of matter at or near the earth’s surface, relative to other such matter : second is to tell other people to do so.”
He has described the four major activities which he performs in four steps : Step I-Planning, Step II-Organizing, Step III-Leading, and Step IV-Controlling or Evaluating. The design of teaching-learning system is prepared with the help of these steps. These steps include the following activities:
1. Analysis of the whole system.
2. Task analysis.
3. Entering behaviours the learner.
4. Specification of knowledge, skills and attitudes of the students.
5. Identifying the students-needs.
6. Formulation of learning objectives.
7. Organizing learning resources.
8. Selecting appropriate teaching strategies.
9. Encouraging and motivating students-activities.
10. Evaluation of teaching system.
11. Learning and teaching system.
12. Observing the learning system
13. Modification in teaching-learning system.
14. Planning for the criterion test, and
15. Construction of criterion test.
These activities can be put under four steps of teaching-learning process.
First Step : Planning : Before going to the classroom, teachers analyse the content or topic into its elements which are arranged in logical sequence. He formulates his teaching objectives in behavioural terms. He selects the appropriate teaching strategies. This step consists of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 14 and 15 activities of teaching learning process as given above list. Teacher must have knowledge and skill about these activities, then he may be able to solve the problems of learning system and can make his teaching effective. The planning is an important step of managing teaching learning.
Second Step : Organizing : This is the second step of managing teaching learning process. The learning sources and organized by the teacher so that he can achieve the objectives successfully. The effective and economical resources are used. In this step learning environment and learning structures are generated by the teacher for realizing the learning objectives. The teacher has to take decision about teaching strategies, teaching aids and tactics of teaching. In this way, this step includes two major activities : 7-organizing learning resources and 11- learning and teaching system. This step requires the training of teaching skills and practising teaching skills, then the teacher can make his teaching effective. The main problem of this step is to integrate teaching and learning resources.
Third Step : Leading : The teacher’s task is to motivate the students-activities, In managing teachinglearning process, the teacher encourages and praises the students-activities and behaviours so that they can learn by being active and learning objectives can be achieved. The leading is an individual activity. The most important aspect is that, how does a teacher motivate his students in leaning process ? The main task’ of teacher is to encourage, to guide and to observe the students activities so that the learning objectives may be achieved.
The leading step involves the various type of instructions and teaching tactics. The appropriate teaching tactics are selected by considering the learning situations. The teacher has to make use of his imagination, creativity and experiences.
In this way the leading step includes : activities I. Selecting appropriate teaching strategies and 9. Encouraging and motivating the students-behaviour activities, the teacher should have practical knowledge and understanding about the theory of motivation and techniques of motivation. The students-needs are considered about taking decision for strategy of teaching and technique of motivation.
Fourth Step : Controlling : Controlling is also the duty of a teacher. Teaching is incomplete without this step. The teacher takes decision about the success of organizing and leading steps that how far these activities of teaching can be achieved the learning-objectives. If they can not achieve the objectives successfully the teacher has to revise or modify his teaching activities of these step and has to apply again in teaching process
This step includes : The following activities 10-evaluation of teaching system, 12 observing the learning system and 13-modifying the teaching-learning system. This step requires practical knowledge of measurement and evaluation strategies, only then the teacher evaluate the workability of organizing and leading activities. He should have the knowledge and skill for developing the criterion test.
It includes both the structures of the machinery process. Organisation, as a structure is a pattern of relationships. It is the positioning of the workers through whom effort will flow, i.e., the assignment of duties and responsibilities, the coordination and integration of activities of all the persons engaged in the pursuit, the tool for attaining the objectives. Persons, places and things have to the so arranged that effort flows freely towards the desired goals, and this is the process of organising. As a process, organising means directing and controlling the relationships between persons and persons and between persons and their work.
Organisation can be of two types :
(1) The Formal Organisation : It is established by law and custom and the informal is the man-toman relationship. The formal is concerned with positions, the informal with persons. Both these are important and inter-related. All individuals in the formal organization have their parallel roles is the informal.
(2) The Informal Organization : It is the human factor and related to the reaction of persons to each other and to the activity. A good establishes both formal and informal organisations. He should set up the formal in keeping with the requirements of the task and also develop informal to reinforce efforts and activities. A good organisation should be democratic, i.e., based on personal relationships, willing cooperation and active participation of all the persons involved. If power and control are not concentrated at the top but shared by all through actual participation. People are brought nearer together and effort integrated. In a good organisation, impetus and initiative for action come from the people themselves, and not imposed from above.
Basic Principles of Organization
The basic principle of good organisation :
1. It should not be static; organisation needs continuous reorganisation.
2. It should be flexible so as to improve both relationships and standards of efficiency.
3. It should be modified as and when educational theory advances, bringing in curricular and other changes. New challenges cannot be met with old machinery. But changes should be brought about slowly and with consultation and consent.
4. It should provide for participation in policy-making and other administrative activities by teachers, students, parents and community. Participation broadens and strengthens human relationships.
5. Organisational charts detailing “functions, jurisdictions, responsibilities, relationships, limits of authority, objectives and methods of measuring performance, etc.,” promote better understanding and larger output.
It means executing or working out the plans in concrete and practical terms. In discharging this function, administration has to perform, besides others, three important tasks or responsibilities.
In the narrow or specific-sense, direction is only a part of the activity. It begins with the start of the act, indicates what is to be done and ends when the activity is over. In the broad general sense, direction means the responsibility for running a number of activities as a whole, in order to achieve certain result.
Direction depends on several factors, such as the prevalent circumstances, staff, equipment, finances, etc., as well as the knowledge and skill of the administrator. It needs coordination of all these factors. It may be that, in a particular situation, the administrator may want one thing, the public may want another, the staff may not be well-trained for either, and the resources may be inadequate for both. Lack of coordination may results in poor administration. Good direction means getting the best possible work done with the least possible expenditure of time, energy and money. For this, the administrator should ensure that orders are clearly understood and faithfully followed. Written orders are better understood and remembered.
Direction is not merely to point the way, but also to compel action. Here comes the role of authority. The administrator has authority, knowledge and personality to give direction. For good results, he should respect these characteristics in the colleagues and subordinates and give direction and orders with regard to the dignity of the recipients. This ensures cooperation. Direction is best when it gives opportunities for wide participation. However, division of authority is not advisable when matters require prompt and specific decisions. So far as possible, direction should be given according to the wishes of those directed. Self-satisfied and Self-respecting individuals, doing their work with purpose, efficiency, Direction should contribute to the development of these attitudes, for they are the means of good work.
It is the process of directing or guiding an activity and also judging it. It is closely related to the elements of the administrative process, such as planning, organisation, etc., and contribute to these elements. Control is the application of the power and authority to hold the workers responsible for their actions. Control is require in all spheres of the educative process, aims and objectives, teachers and students, instruction and equipment, finance and purpose, e.g., for control of finance we need the budget, accounts and auditing.
Aspects of Control : Control has four aspects —the power that controls, the device of using the power, the process of applying the power, and the purpose for using the power. For applying control, we first determine the point where it is needed. Then, we choose the form of power to be applied. Next, we decide about the device to be used, and finally, we evaluate or judge the results of control to see whether its purpose has been ful-filled. All the time we have to remember that the central purpose of control is to bring about improvement and to promote the realisation of the goals of education.
Control involves both power and devices. The power of control are legal authority social custom, superior knowledge of facts and principles and personal attitudes developed by professional training and ethics. The devices of control are many, such as policies, objectives, budgets, salaries, accounts, building, equipment, time-table, curriculum, methods rules and regulations, personal records, reports, promotion, etc. Each activity or situation has its own device of control. Thus, budget controls expenditure, philosophy and sociology, the aims and objectives and theories of learning control the methods of teaching. The various powers work generally in combination with each other and one or more devices and powers may be applied simultaneously. Educational activity is very complex, and so a large variety of devices and powers are needed for control.
It is an important part of the management process. It is based on the assumption that performance can be measured and compared with set standards or values. Evaluation permeates the whole administrative process and is continuous. It fosters the realisation of the aims and objectives of the process. As the administrative process starts, evaluation also starts. Its purpose is to make a captaincies appraisal, discover the weak points of the administrative process and rectify these by modifying the process.
Advantages of Evaluation
The following are the advantages :
(1) It is necessary to judge the effectiveness of the management, process in order to improve it. It should lead to continuous improvement by finding out what objectives are being fulfilled and how far. Thus, it is concerned with both quality and quantity, for it answers the questions “what values” ? And “how much”?
(2) It should be remembered that workers do not appreciate appraisal when they fell their security and status are threatened. The administrator should recognise the impact of evaluation on people. He must use it only for its legitimate /purpose—to improve the individual and the group, offer them psychological security, to help the organisation fulfil its purposes, measure its progress and public understanding and support.
(3) Evaluation helps, improvement of human relationships. In the management process, the human climate is the mot important. A critical analysis of the quality of human relationships in the organisation reveals the prevailing strains and tensions. Evaluation helps the administrator to diagnose the causes of these tensions and adopt quick measures to remove them by social conditioning.
(4) Evaluation helps to secure public interest and cooperation. The administrator, staff and students are daily judging the effectiveness of their actions, but the community should also be given an opportunity to evaluate educational procedures. Their attitude and understanding should be appraised. In this way, evaluation can be instrumental in convincing the people that education deserves the community’s cooperation, sympathy and support.
(5) Evaluation involves the important question of criteria. Educational purposes are complex and difficult to define precisely. There is also a wide divergence of views regarding these purposes, making the task of evaluation more difficult. Thus, some people measure the results of education in therms of pass percentage, others in terms of degrees and diplomas, and still others in terms of incomes earned after education. But all these criteria are unsatisfactory. The most desirable criteria for evaluation of the administrative process should be in terms of the individuals and group’s understanding the purposes of their activities, their potentialities and participation in the process, appreciation of their own and other’s responsibilities, their inter-communication and utilisation of experiences to increase productivity, modification of procedures, creation of unity and cooperation and full integration of capacities, and above all the total effect produced by the educative process upon society as a whole.
Steps in Evaluation Process
(i) Formulation of objectives and purposes of evaluation in clear and definite terms. For this, we should answer the questions why, and what, we are going to evaluate
(ii) Identification of the sources of the data. This is to answer the question what information and material are to be collected.
(iii) Development of methods for the collection of the data. This is to answer the question what instruments or tools of appraisal are to be used. The usually instruments are tests, rating scales, questionnaires, schedules, surveys observation and interviews, etc.
(iv) Interpretation of the results obtained in the light of the objectives and purposes. For this, group discussion would be found more useful.
(v) Integration and summarising of the results. The best possible judgement should be formed and the findings or recommendations should be in a form easy for application for future improvement.
• Management is a collection of processes, including such things as decision-making, problem solving and action-planning. These processes involve the management of resources including human, material, financial and time. These processes are also known as the functions of managers.
• Planning is a method of approaching problems and as the later change and differ from time to time and situation to situation, planning should be continuous, dynamic and flexible. Their success depends upon other individuals understanding and willingness to cooperate,
• Planning is useful because it clarifies what is to be accomplished. It sayes time, effort and money and increases efficiency and effectiveness.
• Basic principles of good planning :