management is a field of study and practice concerned with the operation of educational organizations. Educational management is centrally concerned with the purpose or aims of education. These purposes or goals provide the crucial sense of direction to underpin the management of educational institutions. Unless this link between purpose and management is clear and close, there is a danger of “managerialism . . . a stress on procedures at the expense of educational purpose and values”. “Management possesses no super-ordinate goals or values of its own. The pursuit of efficiency may be the mission statement of management – but this is efficiency in the achievement of objectives which others define”.
The origin of the development of educational management as a field of study began in the United States in the early part of the 20th century. Development in the United Kingdom came as late as the 1960’s Herding wrote a Practical handbook of School Management by Teachers.
(1) Some General Principle of Management Applied to the Problems of School System Franklin Bobbit of the University of Chicago published an article in 1913.
(2) Jesse Newton published Educational Administration as a Social Policy (1934).
(3) Koopman et.al, wrote Democracy in School Administration (1934).
Hopefully we may discuss the books above.
Meaning of Educational Management
Educational management operates in educational organizations. As Tony Bush (1986), puts its, “Most of the definitions of educational management which have been offered by writers are partial because they reflect the particular sense of author. Those which attempt a broader approach are often bland.”
“School management, as a body of educational doctrine, comprises a number of principles and precepts relating primarily to the technique of classroom procedure and derived largely from the practice of successful teachers. The writers in the field have interpreted these principles and precepts in various ways, usually be reference to larger and more fundamental principles of psychology, sociology and ethics.” -Paul Monroe : (1913)
“Management implies an orderly way of thinking. It describes in operational terms what is to be done, how it is to be done, and how we know when we have done. Management is not an arcane mystique. It is a method of operation. Good management should result in an orderly integration of education and society -Shelley Umana : (1972)
While writing about the purpose of educational management Kandel says, “Fundamentally the purpose of educational management is to bring pupils and teachers under such conditions as well as more successfully promote the ends of education. “Sir Graham Balfour writes very aptly, “the purpose of educational management is to enable the right pupils to receive to the right education from the right teachers, at a cost within the means of the state, which will enable pupils to profit by their learning.
In a democratic country like ours, educational management is a necessity. Some suitable, stable elements are properly motivated and organised in the machinery becomes necessary to withstand and survive the changes and upheavals caused because of change of Governments. Superior educational management in fact is so basic to the satisfactory functioning of democracy. Errors of judgement can be retrieved in a farm or factory but these can be fatal when we are concerned with the moulding or ideas and values of society. An efficient and sound system of educational management is, in fact the basis of a good democracy.
It is the management of educational institutions to foster teaching and learning. As a field of practice, it has some aspects in common with other fields of management, such as public administration, hospital administration and business management. As a field of study emerged first at the Teacher’s Training College of Columbia University and was followed shortly by graduate programme of Stanford University, University of Chicago and other institutions in the U.S.A. Indian Universities it had its place only in the 1670s. Since the 1950s educational tration has become a field of study in its own right. As an applied field it has much in common with other applied fields such as medicine, engineering, etc. It builds upon psychology, sociology, economics, political science and other behavioural sciences. For the part twenty to thirty years emphasis has increased on the development of theory and research in educational management. Also has increased understanding of educational organization and the people working in them yet, there is much to be achieved.
With the beginning of 1970s a new era has emerged in the field of educational management. Changes have been taking place in all its aspects, conceptual as well as operational. At the conceptual level new terms, constructs and approaches are being introduced and used. Even the very nomenclature of the field seems to be changing. The terms educational management and educational organization are frequently being used in place of educational management.
(1) Dynamic Function
As a dynamic function, educational management has to be performed continuously, in an everchanging environment. It is constantly engaged in the moulding of the enterprise. It is also concerned about the alternation of environment itself so as to ensure the success of the enterprise. Thus, it is a never-ending function.
The school management must not be a bundle of theoretical principles, but must provide practical measures to achieve the desired objectives Whatever the objective that is decided must be made achievable and practicable to avoid frustration.
(3) Distinct Process
Management is a distinct process to be performed to determine and accomplish stated objectives by the use of human beings and other resources. Different form of activities, techniques and procedures, the process of management consists of such functions as planning, organizing staffing, directing, coordinating, motivating and controlling.
(4) Needed at All Levels of the Organization
According to the nature of task and the scope of authority, management is needed at all levels of the organization, e.g. top level, middle level and supervisory level. Like the executive the lowest level supervisor has also to perform the function of decision-making in way or another.
(5) System of Authority
Authority to get the work accomplished from others is implied in the very concept of management since it is a process of directing men to perform a task. Authority is the power to compel men to work in a certain manner. Management cannot work in the absence of authority since it is a rule-making and rule-enforcing body. There is a chain of authority and responsibility among people working at different levels of the organization. There cannot be an efficient management without well-defined lines of command or superior – subordinate relationships at various levels of decision making.
Management as an art
As an art, management is about carrying out organisational functions and tasks through people. This art involves the application of techniques in :
• human and public relations
• the delegation of an authority : assigning and sharing responsibilities and duties
• communication : including decision-making and problem-solving.
• managing change.
Management as a science
Management here is concerned with establishing a philosophy, laws, theories, principles, processes and practices which can be applied in various situations, including schools.
Management as an organisation
As an organisation, management is about creating formal structures and an establishment based on a mission (or goals), objectives, targets, functions and tasks. For example, social and welfare organisations in government management can refer to education and health services, whilst public security management services could refer to the police and military.
Management as a person
Managements may be seen as a person or a group of people. For example, a teacher could say ‘The school management has changed the timetable in the middle of the term’. This could be referring to you, as the head alone, or to all the senior staff, or it could refer to the members of the board of governors or school committee. In schools with several promoted staff a ‘senior management team’ might be formed in much the same way as a government has a cabinet of ministers.
Management as a discipline
In this sense, management is a field of study with various subjects and topics. Knowledge, skills and attitudes in management can be acquired through learning, from experience and from certificated courses.
The functions of managers
We will briefly examine five main functions of managers, namely : planning, organising, directing, supervising and evaluating.
By scope, we mean the area within which functioning of educational management takes place. The scope of educational management today is as vast as that of education itself. Any activity conducive to the, achievement of educational goal, is a part of educational management. Such activities could be at the school level, at the college level, at the university level or at the control level. Anything done to improve the quality of education at any stage may be ranging from the supply of material, human and financial resources to the highest cultural or academic needs-comes under the scope of educational management. Hence we shall consider the scope of educational management under the following heads.
(1) Goal Development : The educational system is a sub-system of a society, and therefore the society not only provides human and non-human resources but also certain expectations that the system of education will achieve certain goal. Since society is in a constant process of change, needs of the society change an so do the goal specifications. It is necessary for the educative process to be responsive to these changing expectations and it is through the educational management system that persons involved in the process of management can continuously examine, evaluate and change (if appropriate) the goals of education.
(2) Programme Planning and Actualization : According to the Oxford English Dictionary, Planning is “to design some actions to be done before hand”. Philips regards it is “the process of setting in advance a pattern of action to bring about overall national policies by the closest possible means and end.” Thus we can say that planning is the process of preparing a set of decisions for action in the future and directed towards realising some goals by the best possible means. The essence of planning is the appraisal of as many operational alternatives as possible ant then selecting the best for launching action. “Planning selects among alternatives, explores routes before travel begins and identifies possible or probable outcomes of actions before the executive and the organisation is committed to any.”
According to the Education Commission (1964-66) planning at the first two stages, i.e., national level and state levels alone suffers from some deficiencies such as (i) lack of emphasis on local issues in educational development, (ii) non-involvement of educational workers, and (iii) overemphasis on expenditure-oriented programmes. Planning at the local level, i.e. college level is only to offset these drawbacks. Planning at the college level does not mean that the principal or a few of the members of the faculty prepare the plan for various activities of the college. Instead it is a cooperative endeavour of all those who are involved in the implementation of the plans-not only members of the faculty, teaching and non-teaching, but even the students, the parents and the local communities must be associated while planning of the programmes.
The goals that are developed by the management system become the rationale for programme planning and actualization. Programmes represent the intended engagement opportunities for students who are to be educated. The responsibility for the planning and actualization of programmes rests with the management system. It is therefore essential that the management system should provide technological support to the educative process in the form of consultations and services. The management system should initiate, coordinate, provide services and to be a part of these activities.
(3) Organization : Organization has been a problem in the field of education. The debate over the control of education has over and again raised the salient issue of how educational machinery should be best organised, politically, professionally and administratively. Here too, as in several other vital areas, education is handicapped by tradition. If conventional biases and prejudices can be replaced by decisions made logically and scientifically, with the achievement of objectives as the only consideration modern principles and techniques of organization will provide a basis for effective distribution and co-ordination of functions.
A principle is a generally accepted truth, which is based on experience and the available information. Henri Fayol (1916) listed principles of management with regards to human activities, They were :
• division of work
• authority, responsibility and accountability
• discipline • unity of command
• unity of direction
• centralisation ; decentralisation
• scalar chain (the chain of command in an organisation)
• remuneration of personnel
• subordination of individual interest to general interest
• stability of tenure of personnel
The difference between management and administration can be summarised under two categories
(2) Usage / Applicability
The characteristics of successful school management are given in the following points :
(3) Conformity to the social and political philosophy of the country.
(5) Successful achievement of desired objectives.
The characteristics of school management details have been given following paragraphs:
(1) Flexibility : One of the essential characteristics of successful school management is its flexible character. The manager should be dynamic, not static; it should provide enough scope for additions and alternations. The rules and regulations should act as a means to end and not an end in themselves. Dead uniformity and mechanical efficiency is the very antithesis of good administration. The framework of administration should provide enough scope to the administrator to help the needy student, and the needy teacher, to change the time schedule to suit the weather to meet any emergency. A word of caution here. Flexibility does not means that the administration should be in a fluid condition without any specific norm or standard rules and regulations, creating confusion and chaos at every step. What is meant, is a proper balance between rigidity and elasticity.
(2) Practicability : The school management must not be a bundle of theoretical principles, but must provide practical measure to achieve the desired objectives. Whatever objective is decided it must be achievable and practicable to avoid frustration.
(3) Conformity to the Social and Political Philosophy of the Country : There must be close connection between school management and the social and political philosophy of a country. It must adjust itself to the impact of new ideals, new patterns and new moves of the society. In an autocratic country, educational theory and practice will have to be different form that of a democratic country because education is one of the means to achieve social and political objectives. American education is decentralised and democratised whereas Chinese education is characterised by regimentation due to political philosophies of the respective countries. In India, school administration has to be democratic because of political democracy in the country.
(4) Efficiency: Successful management is that which result in maximum efficiency. This will be possible only when human and material resources are properly utilised- right man at the right place; right work at the right time, every activity and project are well planned and well executed.
(5) Successful Achievement of Desired Objectives: Successful management is one which leads to the successful achievement of desired objectives of education in a particular community e.g., healthy social living, development of good physical, social, moral, intellectual and aesthetic qualities and healthy democratic living. School management must facilitate education. It exists for the pupil and its efficiency has to be measured by the extent to which it contributes to teaching and learning.